Components of a computer

Today we will look at what a computer consists of and what is This includes a discussion of the main devices that make up a system unit. 

I would like to draw your attention to the fact that we will discuss the structure of household computers. That is, we will not discuss server and industrial systems.

So, what does a computer consist of?

Components of a computer

An ordinary user computer consists of a system unit, a monitor, a keyboard, a mouse for ease of use (its absence does not affect the performance of the PC) and audio speakers for music playback.

The system unit consists of:

  1. Motherboard.
  2. Graphic card (GPU).
  3. Processor (CPU).
  4. Cooling system.
  5. Operating memory (RAM).

Processor (CPU)

In a broad sense, a processor is a device that performs computations and logical operations on data. The power of the CPU determines the speed of instruction processing and the productivity of other parts of the computer.


The main system board of a computer, which has connectors for installing additional expansion cards and serves as the mechanical basis for the entire electronic circuitry of the computer. It provides the full interaction of the computer’s components.

Graphic card (GPU)

Another important computer component. It is responsible for processing and preparing graphics for display on the screen. That is, without a graphics card we will not see anything on the screen. A modern graphics card has its own multi-core microprocessor and its own RAM.

Operating memory (RAM)

The part of a computer’s memory system that temporarily stores program data and commands that the processor needs to execute its program code. As long as the computer is turned on, this information is stored in RAM. But if the PC power is turned off, this information is lost. Therefore, it is important to have a backup power supply or an uninterruptible power supply (UPS).

Cooling system

Since all computer components are powered by electrical current, they tend to heat up. In other words, if you want your PC to be able to successfully cope with its tasks without burning out, it is worth paying attention to the selection of quality cooling. A basic cooling system is needed even for the simplest computer. If you are or plan to become the owner of a gaming or professional PC, you should by no means save on cooling.